Reaching the unreached Sudan Belt: Guinness, Kumm and the Sudan-Pioneer-Mission
Sauer, Christof, 1963-
Fiedler, Klaus, Dr.; Reimer, J.
This missiological project seeks to study the role of the Guinnesses and Kumms in reaching the
Sudan Belt, particularly through the Sudan-Pionier-Mission (SPM) founded in 1900.
The term Sudan Belt referred to Africa between Senegal and Ethiopia, at that period one of the
largest areas unreached by Christian missionaries. Grattan Guinness (1835-1910) at that time was
the most influential promoter of faith missions for the Sudan. The only initiative based in
Germany was the SPM, founded by Guinness, his daughter Lucy (1865-1906), and her German husband
Karl Kumm (1874-1930). Kumm has undeservedly been forgotten, and his early biography as a
missionary and explorer in the deserts of Egypt is here brought to light again.
The early SPM had to struggle against opposition in Germany. Faith missions were
considered unnecessary, and missions to Muslims untimely by influential representatives of
classical missions. The SPM was seeking to reach the Sudan Belt via the Nile from Aswan. The most
promising figure for this venture was the Nubian Samuel Ali Hiseen (1863-1927), who accomplished a
scripture colportage tour through Nubia. Unfortunately, he was disregarded by the first German
missionary, Johannes Kupfemagel (1866-1937).
When the SPM failed to reach the Sudan Belt due to political restrictions, Kumm and the
SPM board were divided in their strategies. Kumm planned to pursue a new route via the Niger River,
seeking support in Great Britain rather independently. The SPM, holding on to Aswan, dismissed
Kumm, and began to decline until it made a new start in 1905, but for a long time remained a
local mission work in Upper Egypt. The Sudan United Mission however, founded by the Kumms in 1904,
did indeed reach the Sudan Belt.
An analysis of the SPM reveals its strengths and weaknesses. The SPM grew out of the Holiness
movement and shared the urgency, which made faith missions successful, but also was the SPM's
weakness, as it suffered from ill-preparedness. The SPM innovatively gathered together
single women from the nobility in a community of service for missions under its
chairman, Pastor Theodor Ziemendorff (1837-:1912).
Christian Spirituality, Church History and Missiology
Missiology; Mission history--Protestant; Interdenominational faith missions; Sudan-Pionier-Mission; Sudan-United-Mission; Africa; Sudan Belt; Egypt; Aswan; Nubia; Germany; Hessen-Nassau; Wiesbaden; Osterode am Harz; Great Britain; United States of America; Missionary biography; Henry Grattan Guinness; Lucy E. Guinness; H. Karl W. Kumm; Theodor Ziemendorff; Samuel Ali Hiseen; Gustav Warneck; Missionary objectives; Female missionaries; Indigenous missionary workers; Missionary methods; Missionary cooperation; Missionary conflicts; Mission among muslims; Missions -- Theory; Interdenominational cooperation -- Sudan (Region); Women missionaries -- Sudan (Region); Missions -- Sudan (Region)
Type of publication|
South Africa - University of South Africa (UNISA)
Added to C-A: 2016-11-08;09:45:08|
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